Diagram – Vocabulary

Diagram: Vocabulary

Sequency Words

  • “First,” or “First of all,” to introduce the initial stage or step.
  • “Next,” to move on to the subsequent point or stage in the process.
  • “Then,” to continue the sequence after the initial or next step.
  • “After that,” to indicate what happens following a particular step.
  • “Following this,” to describe what comes after a specific point in a sequence.
  • “The final stage,” or “Finally,” to introduce the last step in a process.
  • “Once …” as a way to begin a new part of the sequence after a certain condition is met.
  • “The next step,” to proceed to the subsequent stage.
  • “The process begins with,” to start describing how a process initiates.
  • “The first step,” to outline the very beginning of a process.
  • “… and then …” to continue describing subsequent actions or stages.
  • “Before the last step,” to mention what happens just before the final stage.
  • “The last step,” to indicate the final part of the process.

Verb Forms

  • Imperative (Command) Form: Used for giving instructions or directions, e.g., “Heat the oil or butter in a pan.”
  • Passive Simple Present: Describes current or habitual actions performed on the subject, not by the subject, e.g., “The eggs are beaten until they become frothy.”
  • Passive Modal Verbs: Indicate necessity or possibility, e.g., “The oil should be changed in your car.”
  • Active Simple Present: Describes general truths or habits, e.g., “An adult butterfly emerges from its cocoon.”
  • Present Perfect Passive: Refers to actions completed at an unspecified time in the past, e.g., “The paper has been signed by the president.”
  • Present Continuous Passive: Describes ongoing actions in the present, e.g., “The machine is being cleaned at the moment.”
  • Present Simple + Infinitive: Describes a sequence where one action follows another, e.g., “The first step is to take the patient’s temperature.”
  • Present Perfect or Past Simple Passive: Used for actions completed at a definite time, e.g., “The process has been approved by the committee.”
  • Will + Infinitive: Refers to future actions or promises, e.g., “The seeds will be planted in the spring.”
  • ‘To be’ + Infinitive: Used to describe a necessary following action, e.g., “The mixture is to be stirred for five minutes.”
  • Present Passive Mixed: Combines present passive forms for describing ongoing processes, e.g., “The ingredients are mixed and then the dough is left to rise.”

Signal Words for Alternative Steps:

  • “If… then”: Used to indicate that one step will follow if a certain condition is met.
  • “Alternatively”: Suggests another option or step.
  • “Either… or”: Presents two possibilities, where one of two outcomes can occur.
  • “At this point”: Signifies a particular stage in a process.
  • “Next”: Indicates the following step or stage.
  • “Alternatively, if…”: Introduces an optional step that may happen under certain conditions.
  • “The next step”: Refers to the subsequent action in the sequence.
  • “Alternatively, D3 might occur”: Implies another possible outcome that could happen instead of the previous step.
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