Task 2 – Problem Resolution Essay: Vocabulary




  • Perhaps … is a cause of …
  • One possible cause is …
  • Another cause can also be …
  • If you do not know it …
  • … may/might play a role …


  • The primary/main cause of … is …
  • A second cause of … is …
  • Furthermore, …
  • In addition, …
  • Finally, …

Giving reasons and examples


  • therefore / consequently Many drivers lack proper training; therefore, they don’t know what to do in an emergency.
  • so Sometimes drivers use their cell phones, so they are too distracted to avoid dangerous situations.
  • as a result Sometimes drivers use their cell phones; as a result, they are too distracted to avoid dangerous situations.
  • results in / accounts for Equipment failure also plays a role. For example, a loss of brakes results in accidents.
  • causes / leads to / gives rise to / is responsible for Bad weather conditions in winter lead to an increase in the number of accidents on the roads.


  • because / since The most important cause of traffic accidents is excessive speed. Because they are traveling so fast, drivers don’t have time to react.
  • due to / because of / owing to Tiredness is a common cause of traffic accidents. Last year, 50 per cent of accidents were due to drivers not taking frequent breaks whilst driving.
  • is/are caused by Poor weather conditions, such as icy roads, may also play a role. In the winter, many accidents are caused by icy roads.

Introducing and Proposing Solutions


  • recommend
  • suggest
  • propose

Modal verbs

  • must
  • should
  • ought to
  • might
  • may
  • could


  • recommendation
  • suggestion
  • solution
  • idea
  • proposal


  • I recommend that young drivers be required to take an additional motorway driving test before they get their driving licence.
  • My recommendation is that the following steps be taken.
  • I suggest that the government do this right away.
  • I propose that the government identify dangerous roads and fix the problems. Manufacturers should build safer vehicles.
  • Laws requiring seat belts must be enforced.
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